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Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinson's: A Promising Treatment Option (2023)

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Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinson's: A Promising Treatment Option (2023)

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Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising treatment for Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurological disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. This innovative therapy involves the use of stem cells, which are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to differentiate into various types of specialized cells. Stem cells can be obtained from various sources, including embryonic tissue, adult tissue, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

Parkinson's disease is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, which leads to a range of motor and non-motor symptoms. The current treatments for Parkinson's disease, such as medications and deep brain stimulation, can alleviate symptoms but do not address the underlying cause of the disease. Stem cell therapy, on the other hand, has the potential to replace the lost dopamine-producing neurons and restore the function of the brain cells that are affected by Parkinson's disease.

Key Takeaways
  • Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for Parkinson's disease that involves the use of undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into various types of specialized cells.
  • Parkinson's disease is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, and stem cell therapy has the potential to replace these lost cells and restore brain function.
  • Stem cells can be obtained from various sources, including embryonic tissue, adult tissue, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Clinical trials and research studies are ongoing to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinsons

In the context of Parkinson's disease, stem cell therapy is under investigation for its potential therapeutic applications. Current scientific studies have indicated possible improvements in various symptoms associated with the disorder. The following outlines the potential benefits:

  1. Tremors: The transplantation of stem cells may facilitate the repair or replacement of lost or damaged dopamine-producing cells in the brain, potentially leading to a reduction in tremors.
  2. Bradykinesia: Enhancement of the function of dopamine-producing cells through stem cell therapy may contribute to improvements in bradykinesia, characterized by slowness of movement.
  3. Rigidity: Stem cell interventions may mitigate rigidity by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress within the brain.
  4. Dyskinesia: The functional improvement of dopamine-producing cells via stem cell therapy may aid in the reduction of dyskinesia, or abnormal movements.
  5. Postural Instability: Stem cells may enhance the function of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, potentially leading to a decrease in postural instability.

It is imperative to recognize that these benefits are prospective and based on both preclinical and clinical research findings. Further investigation is required to validate these outcomes and to ascertain the most effective transplantation methods and optimal stem cell sources for Parkinson's disease before widespread therapeutic application can be considered.

stem cell therapy for parkinsons

Is Stem Cell Therapy Effective for Parkinson's Disease?

Current Understanding

Stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease remains in the exploratory phase, and further research is required to ascertain its long-term effectiveness. However, preclinical and clinical studies utilizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have indicated promising potential benefits for treating Parkinson's disease, including:

  1. Cell Replacement and Repair: Replacement or repair of lost or damaged dopamine-producing cells in the brain.
  2. Motor Function Improvement: Enhancement of motor function and reduction in symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement.
  3. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Reduction: Decrease in inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain, factors contributing to the development of Parkinson's disease.
  4. Immune System Function: Improvement in the function of the immune system, leading to condition stabilization or potentially extended remission.

These findings represent a significant step forward in the understanding and potential application of stem cell therapies in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson's disease. Continued research and clinical trials are essential to validate these promising results and to develop standardized protocols for therapeutic implementation.

mesenchymal stem cells for parkinsons
Pictured: Stem cells coloured to replace neurons

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Introduction

While there have been significant advances in the symptomatic management of neurodegenerative diseases that enhance quality of life and survival, existing medications may only decelerate the progression of neuronal death by a limited duration. The concept of utilizing cell therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Parkinson's Disease, has been explored for decades, with various successful cell transplant investigations.

Mechanisms of Action

According to a recent study by Nathan P. Staff et al., the precise mechanisms by which MSCs may exert beneficial effects in neurological diseases are still under investigation, but several different mechanisms may contribute:

  1. Neurotrophic Growth Factors: MSCs have been demonstrated to secrete neurotrophic growth factors, including glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These factors can be further enhanced under specific culture conditions and have been shown to promote neuronal survival in preclinical models of neuron injury, including ALS, PD, and MSA transgenic animals and nerve injury models.
  2. Immune Modulation and Wound Healing: MSCs possess strong immunomodulatory properties and can aid in wound healing. This mechanism has been utilized in disorders such as graft versus host disease and Crohn's disease. From a neurodegenerative perspective, the significant role of neuroinflammation in the pathomechanism has become increasingly recognized.

Understanding Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system. It is a progressive disorder that primarily affects movement. The disease is caused by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is responsible for regulating movement and emotional responses.

The symptoms of Parkinson's disease vary from person to person, but the most common symptoms include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. In addition to these motor symptoms, patients with Parkinson's disease may also experience cognitive impairment, depression, and other non-motor symptoms.

Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive disorder that worsens over time. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but there are treatments available that can help manage the symptoms of the disease.

Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a complex disorder that requires a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. As our understanding of the disease improves, so do our treatment options. Stem cell therapy is one of the promising new treatments that is being studied for Parkinson's disease.

The Role of Dopamine and Neurons

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the regulation of movement, motivation, and reward. The loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain leads to the characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia.

Dopamine neurons are responsible for producing and releasing dopamine into the brain, which helps to regulate movement and other bodily functions. These neurons are located in the substantia nigra region of the brain, and their loss is the primary cause of Parkinson's disease.

The dopamine-producing cells in the brain are particularly vulnerable to damage and degeneration, and as a result, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of these cells. This loss of dopamine-producing neurons leads to a reduction in dopamine levels in the brain, which results in the characteristic symptoms of the disease.

The use of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease aims to replace the lost dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, including dopamine-producing neurons. The transplantation of stem cell-derived dopamine neurons has shown promise in preclinical studies and has the potential to provide a long-term solution for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

In summary, the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain is the primary cause of Parkinson's disease. Stem cell therapy aims to replace these lost neurons and restore dopamine levels in the brain, providing a potential long-term solution for the treatment of this debilitating disease.

Stem Cells and Their Types

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells and self-renewal. They are the building blocks of the body's tissues and organs, and they have the potential to repair and regenerate damaged tissues. There are several types of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and adult stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that are a few days old. These cells have the potential to differentiate into any type of cell in the body. However, the use of embryonic stem cells is controversial due to ethical concerns.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are adult cells that have been reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state. These cells have the potential to differentiate into any type of cell in the body, and they have the advantage of being patient-specific, which reduces the risk of immune rejection.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that are found in various tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue. These cells have the potential to differentiate into cells that form bone, cartilage, and fat. MSCs also have immunomodulatory properties, which make them attractive for use in treating inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

The choice of cell source for stem cell therapy depends on the type of disease being treated and the availability of cells. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and iPSCs, have the advantage of being able to differentiate into any type of cell in the body. However, they also have the risk of forming tumors. MSCs are adult stem cells have a lower risk of tumor formation, great immunoregulatory properties and are commonly used in clinical studies.

Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. While current treatments can help manage symptoms, there is no cure for the disease. However, stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising avenue for treating Parkinson's disease.

Stem cell therapy involves the administration of a cell product either intravenously, intrathecally or intranasally to reduce inflammation, regenerate neurons and regulate the immune system. The goal with Parkinson's Disease is to slow degeneration and hopefully improve symptoms associated with the condition. use of cells that can differentiate into various cell types, including neurons. These cells can be derived from various sources, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells.

Cell-based therapy has shown promising results in improving motor function and symptom control in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Studies have shown that transplantation of dopamine-producing cells derived from stem cells can improve motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

While the efficacy of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is still being studied, early results are promising. A study published in the journal Rejuvenation Research found that intravenous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells improved motor function in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Adult stem cells have a strong safety profile

tudies have shown that stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is generally safe. A study published in the journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine found that the transplantation of fetal dopamine neurons in two Parkinsonian patients was safe and well-tolerated.

In conclusion, stem cell therapy is a promising avenue for treating Parkinson's disease. While more research is needed to determine the efficacy and safety of stem cell therapy, early results are promising. Cell-based therapy has the potential to improve motor function and symptom control in individuals with Parkinson's disease, offering hope for a cure in the future.

Clinical Trials and Research Studies

There have been a number of clinical trials and research studies investigating the use of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease. These studies have been conducted both in animal models and in humans.

One notable clinical trial was conducted by a team of researchers led by Jun Takahashi, a stem cell scientist at Kyoto University in Japan. The trial involved transplanting induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into the brains of seven patients with Parkinson's disease. The study found that the transplantation was safe and well-tolerated by the patients, and that some of the patients experienced improvements in their symptoms.

Another clinical trial, conducted by a team of researchers led by Lorenz Studer at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, involved transplanting dopamine-producing neurons derived from embryonic stem cells into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. The trial found that the transplantation was safe and well-tolerated, and that some of the patients experienced improvements in their symptoms.

Exciting new research for Parkinson's Disease

A 2020 study highlights the potential of stem cell-based therapies for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). The key insight of the study revolves around the application of stem cell therapy as a promising approach to address the underlying pathology of PD. The hallmark of PD is the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain, which results in dopamine deficiency in the striatum and the subsequent motor symptoms. Stem cell therapy, specifically the transplantation of neural grafts containing dopaminergic cells, aims to replenish the lost dopaminergic neurons and restore dopamine release in the brain.

This research contributes to our understanding of PD pathogenesis by focusing on the potential role of stem cells in replacing damaged neurons and improving dopamine transmission. By utilizing stem cell-based approaches, scientists aim to address the root cause of the disease rather than just managing its symptoms. This aligns with the growing interest in regenerative medicine, as it holds the potential to revolutionize the treatment landscape for degenerative conditions like PD.

Moreover, the study underscores the advancements made in the application of stem cell therapy for PD treatment. It discusses previous animal model experiments and clinical trials involving neural grafts to replace lost dopaminergic neurons. Notably, the study highlights a European trial where fetal VM tissues were transplanted into patients with desirable characteristics for neural grafting, showing promising results in alleviating PD symptoms.

The study's findings shed light on the potential of stem cell-based therapies as a groundbreaking approach to address the underlying causes of Parkinson's disease. By emphasizing the restoration of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine transmission, this research paves the way for innovative treatments that could significantly improve the quality of life for individuals living with PD.

Additional Research

Several other research studies have investigated the use of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease. For example, a study conducted by Tilo Kunath and colleagues at the University of Edinburgh in the UK investigated the use of human embryonic stem cells to produce dopamine-producing neurons for transplantation. The study found that the transplantation was safe and well-tolerated in animal models, and that the transplanted cells survived and functioned in the brains of the animals.

Other researchers, such as Malin Parmar at Lund University in Sweden and Roger Barker at the University of Cambridge in the UK, have investigated the use of neural grafting techniques to transplant dopamine-producing neurons into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. These techniques involve transplanting cells from fetal brain tissue or other sources into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease.

Overall, while the results of these studies are promising, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease. The Lancet Neurology published a review of the current state of stem cell research in Parkinson's disease in 2023, which provides an overview of the current state of the field. Researchers such as Agnete Kirkeby and Malin Parmar continue to investigate the use of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease, and the field is likely to continue to progress in the coming years.

Challenges and Ethical Considerations

Stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease has shown promising results in preclinical studies and early-phase clinical trials. However, there are still several challenges and ethical considerations that need to be addressed before stem cell therapy can become a standard treatment for Parkinson's disease.Donor-Specific Ethical Considerations

One of the main ethical concerns with stem cell therapy is the use of embryonic stem cells, which raises ethical concerns about the destruction of embryos. However, the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has led to the generation of patient-specific stem cells, which do not raise the same ethical concerns.

Adverse Effects

Another challenge with stem cell therapy is the risk of adverse effects. The use of stem cells can lead to the formation of tumors or the development of abnormal tissue. Researchers must carefully monitor patients for adverse effects and develop strategies to minimize the risk of these complications.

Inflammation and Neuroinflammation

Inflammation and neuroinflammation are also significant challenges in stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease. Inflammation can lead to the death of transplanted cells and can also exacerbate the underlying neurodegenerative process. Researchers must develop strategies to reduce inflammation and neuroinflammation to improve the efficacy of stem cell therapy.

Lewy Bodies and Alpha-Synuclein

Lewy bodies and alpha-synuclein are pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the brain leads to the formation of Lewy bodies, which are toxic to neurons. Researchers must develop strategies to target Lewy bodies and alpha-synuclein to improve the efficacy of stem cell therapy.

In summary, stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease faces several challenges and ethical considerations. Researchers must carefully monitor patients for adverse effects, develop strategies to reduce inflammation and neuroinflammation, and target Lewy bodies and alpha-synuclein to improve the efficacy of stem cell therapy.

Alternative Treatments and Therapies

While stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising treatment for Parkinson's disease, there are also several alternative treatments and therapies that patients can consider. These treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow down the progression of the disease.

Exosomes

A 2021 study discusses, the potential of extracellular vesicles called exosomes in propagating pathological α-synuclein throughout the brain. Exosomes, capable of transporting proteins and genetic material between cells, including microRNAs and mRNAs linked to PD pathology, shed light on how they might contribute to the disease's progression. Various cell types, such as neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, release exosomes in the brain, carrying materials that can influence gene expression and protein activity in recipient cells. This makes exosomes prime candidates for modulating protein misfolding in PD.

The study delves into the mechanisms of α-synuclein aggregation and intercellular transmission, suggesting that exosomes could hold therapeutic potential. Exosomes have been found to transfer α-synuclein to normal neuronal cells, leading to the formation of aggregates and subsequent cell death. The research also explores the utilization of exosomes as vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), into the brain. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes have shown promise in various pathologies, including PD. Furthermore, the study discusses the potential of exosomes as diagnostic tools and their role in novel therapeutic approaches for PD. However, the limitations and concerns associated with exosome-based interventions are also acknowledged, highlighting the need for further research in this area.

Deep Brain Stimulation

One alternative therapy that has shown promise is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). DBS involves implanting electrodes in the brain that emit electrical impulses to regulate abnormal brain activity associated with Parkinson's. This therapy has been found to be effective in reducing tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia in Parkinson's patients.

Levodopa

Another alternative treatment that is commonly used is levodopa, which is a medication that helps increase dopamine levels in the brain. Dopamine agonists are also used to mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain. However, these medications can cause side effects such as hallucinations, sleep disturbance, and falls.

In addition to medication and DBS, physical therapy can also be beneficial for Parkinson's patients. Physical therapy can help improve balance, coordination, and flexibility, as well as reduce the risk of falls. Occupational therapy can also be helpful in improving daily living activities and maintaining independence.

Table 1: summarizes some of the alternative treatments and therapies for Parkinson's disease.

Treatment/Therapy Description
Deep Brain Stimulation Implanting electrodes in the brain that emit electrical impulses to regulate abnormal brain activity associated with Parkinson's
Levodopa Medication that helps increase dopamine levels in the brain
Dopamine agonists Medications that mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain
Physical therapy Therapy that helps improve balance, coordination, and flexibility
Occupational therapy Therapy that helps improve daily living activities and maintain independence

It is important to note that while these alternative treatments and therapies can be effective in managing Parkinson's symptoms, they are not a cure for the disease. Patients should work with their healthcare providers to determine the best treatment plan for their individual needs.

Future Prospects and Developments

Stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is a promising area of research that offers hope for patients suffering from this debilitating condition. While the efficacy of current treatments is limited, stem cell therapy has the potential to provide a cure for Parkinson's disease.

One of the most significant developments in stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is the transplantation of dopamine-producing neurons. This approach has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical trials, and it has the potential to provide a long-term solution for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, there are still challenges to be overcome in terms of the delivery methods and the optimization of transplantation protocols.

Another area of development in stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These cells can be derived from the patient's own cells, which eliminates the risk of rejection and makes the therapy widely available. However, there are still challenges to be overcome in terms of optimizing the differentiation of iPSCs into dopamine-producing neurons.

Regenerative medicine is another area of development that holds promise for Parkinson's disease. This approach involves the use of stem cells to regenerate damaged tissue and restore function. While there is still much to learn about the mechanisms of regeneration, regenerative medicine has the potential to provide a long-term solution for Parkinson's disease.

Financial support is also crucial for the development of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease. Researchers such as Barrett and Mason, along with neurosurgeons and other experts in the field, require funding to continue their work and bring stem cell therapy to the clinic.

In conclusion, stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is a promising area of research that offers hope for patients suffering from this debilitating condition. While there are still challenges to be overcome, the future prospects and developments in this field are bright. With continued research and financial support, stem cell therapy has the potential to provide a cure for Parkinson's disease.

Conclusion

Stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease holds great promise for the future of cell replacement therapy. The use of stem cells in treating Parkinson's disease is a rapidly evolving field, and ongoing research is aimed at developing more effective treatments.

One of the benefits of stem cell therapy is the potential for the cells to differentiate into the specific types of cells that are damaged in Parkinson's disease. This means that stem cells have the potential to replace the damaged cells and restore function to the brain.

While there is still much to learn about the use of stem cells in treating Parkinson's disease, the current research suggests that it is a safe and effective treatment option. However, more research is needed to determine the optimal timing, dose, and delivery method for stem cell therapy.

Overall, stem cell therapy offers a promising avenue for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. As research continues to progress, it is hoped that stem cell therapy will become a widely available and effective treatment option for those living with Parkinson's disease.

Frequently Asked Questions

What type of stem cells are commonly used in Parkinson's disease treatment?

The most commonly used stem cells in Parkinson's disease treatment are embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. These stem cells have the ability to differentiate into dopamine-producing neurons, which are lost in Parkinson's disease.

What is the current success rate of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease?

The success rate of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease varies depending on the type of stem cells used and the stage of the disease. While some studies have shown promising results, the therapy is still in the experimental stage and more research is needed to determine its long-term efficacy.

What are the potential disadvantages of using stem cells to treat Parkinson's disease?

Some potential disadvantages of using stem cells to treat Parkinson's disease include the risk of rejection by the immune system, the risk of tumor formation, and the risk of developing abnormal growths or mutations. Additionally, the therapy can be expensive and may not be covered by insurance.

Are there any recent breakthroughs or advancements in stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease?

Recent breakthroughs in stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease include the discovery of new methods for generating dopamine-producing neurons from stem cells and the development of more efficient and cost-effective ways to produce large quantities of these cells.

Can stem cell therapy effectively cure Parkinson's disease?

While stem cell therapy has shown promising results in some studies, it is important to note that there is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease. Stem cell therapy may help to alleviate symptoms and slow the progression of the disease, but it cannot completely cure it.

What are the future possibilities for stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease treatment?

The future possibilities for stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease treatment are vast and exciting. Researchers are exploring new ways to use stem cells to replace lost neurons, repair damaged brain tissue, and even regenerate brain cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential of stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease treatment.

References:

(1) Liu Z, Cheung HH. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Parkinson Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 29;21(21):8060. doi: 10.3390/ijms21218060. PMID: 33137927; PMCID: PMC7663462.

(2) Pinnell JR, Cui M, Tieu K. Exosomes in Parkinson disease. J Neurochem. 2021 May;157(3):413-428. doi: 10.1111/jnc.15288. Epub 2021 Jan 22. PMID: 33372290; PMCID: PMC8863192.

(3) Venkataramana, N. K., Kumar, S. K. V., Balaraju, S., Radhakrishnan, R. C., Bansal, A., Dixit, A., … Totey, S. M. (2009, August 6). Open-labeled study of unilateral autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931524409002205#!

(4) Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/unified-parkinsons-disease-rating-scale

(5) Department of Neurosurgery Department of Neurology and Neuroscience. (n.d.). Stem cell treatment for Parkinson's disease: an update for.. : Current Opinion in Neurology. Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/co-neurology/Abstract/2005/08000/Stem_cell_treatment_for_Parkinson_s_disease__an.5.aspx

(6) Staff, N. P., Jones, D. T., & Singer, W. (2019, May). Mesenchymal stromal cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Retrieved January 26, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6643282/

(7) Safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in patients with Parkinson's disease: a phase I clinical trial" - Published in the journal "Stem Cells Translational Medicine" in 2016.

(8) Safety and feasibility of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease patients: a phase I/IIa clinical trial" - Published in the Journal of Translational Medicine in 2019.

(9) Safety and Feasibility of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial" - Published in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease in 2020.

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